Drug & Alcohol Rehabs in
Portland, OR

Portland Oregon Drug Alcohol Rehab
Portland, OR, is home to a variety of treatment facilities. No matter what type of substance use disorder you are trying to treat, there is a drug or alcohol rehab in Portland tailored to your specific needs. Some take a more holistic approach, focusing on the outdoor lifestyle Portland is known for, while others are designed with families and young adults in mind. Further, if you are worried that you can’t afford a Portland drug rehab, there are several ways you can still get the treatment you need.

Find Rehab Centers in Portland

Thumbnail Name Address Phone Treatment Insurance
Integrated Health Clinics

17882 Southeast McLoughlin Boulevard
Portland, OR 97267

503-353-9415 Outpatient Detox Medicaid Private
Tree House Recovery

4713 North Albina Avenue
Portland, OR 97217

503-850-2474 Inpatient Outpatient Private
Volunteers of America of Oregon

3910 Southeast Stark Street
Portland, OR 97214

503-235-8655 Outpatient Free
Pacific Alcohol and Drug Counseling

12950 Southwest Pacific Highway
Tigard, OR 97223

503-624-9545 Outpatient Medicaid
Western Psychological and Counseling Services

12636 Southeast Stark Street
Portland, OR 97233

503-253-4600 Outpatient Medicaid Private
OHSU Avel Gordly Center for Healing

621 Southwest Alder Street
Portland, OR 97205

503-494-4745 Outpatient Detox Medicaid Private
Bridges to Change Multnomah County

7916 Southeast Foster Road
Portland, OR 97206

503-465-2749 Outpatient Medicaid
Serenity Lane Intensive Outpatient Treatment Center

10920 Southwest Barbur Boulevard
Portland, OR 97219

503-244-4500 Outpatient Private Medicaid
Serenity Lane Treatment Center

12662 Southeast Stark Street
Portland, OR 97233

503-546-7677 Outpatient Private Medicaid
Cedar Hills Hospital

10300 Southwest Eastridge Street
Portland, OR 97225

503-944-5000 Detox Inpatient Private
Portland Metro Area

1904 Southeast Division Street
Portland, OR 97202

503-517-8663 Outpatient Medicaid Private
Portland VA Medical Center

3710 Southwest US Veterans Hospital Road
Portland, OR 97239

503-220-8262 Outpatient Detox Private
Lutheran Community Services Northwest Portland

605 Southeast Cesar Estrada Chavez Boulevard
Portland, OR 97214

503-231-7480 Outpatient Medicaid Private
Garlington Health Center

3034 Northeast Martin Luther King Junior Boulevard
Portland, OR 97212

503-238-0769 Outpatient Medicaid Private
Outside In Young Adult Support

1132 Southwest 13th Avenue
Portland, OR 97205

503-535-3800 Outpatient Detox Medicaid Private
Cascadia Plaza Health Center

2415 Southeast 43rd Avenue
Portland, OR 97206

503-230-9654 Outpatient Medicaid Private
Beaverton TMS Therapy Treatment Center

1675 SouthWest Marlow Avenue
Portland, OR 97225

855-940-4867 Inpatient N/A
Cascadia Woodland Park Health Center

10373 Northeast Hancock Street
Portland, OR 97220

503-253-6754 Outpatient Medicaid Private
CODA Gresham Womens and Mens Residential

1427 Southeast 182nd Avenue
Portland, OR 97233

503-761-6006 Outpatient Detox Inpatient Medicaid Private
Providence Behavioral Health Southwest Portland Area

9450 Southwest Barnes Road
Portland, OR 97225

503-574-9235 Outpatient Detox Medicaid Private
Providence Portland Medical Center Adult Outpatient Services

5228 Northeast Hoyt Street
Portland, OR 97213

503-215-6474 Outpatient Medicaid Private
A Better Today Recovery Services

1122 Northeast 122nd Avenue
Portland, OR 97230

503-406-4434 Detox Outpatient Private
Central City Concern Recovery Center

726 West Burnside Street
Portland, OR 97209

503-944-4410 Outpatient Detox Medicaid Private
Cameron Care Garfield Ave

3626 Northeast Garfield Avenue
Portland, OR 97212

503-249-6998 Inpatient Medicaid Private
East Portland Comprehensive Treatment Center

6601 Northeast 78th Court
Portland, OR 97218

503-917-3617 Outpatient Detox Medicaid Private
CODA Treatment Recovery

1027 East Burnside Street
Portland, OR 97214

855-733-2632 Outpatient Detox Medicaid Private Free
New Season Portland Metro Treatment Center

16420 Southeast Division Street
Portland, OR 97236

503-762-3130 Outpatient Detox Private Medicaid
Providence Behavioral Health Southwest Portland

9450 Southwest Barnes Road
Portland, OR 97225

503-574-9235 Outpatient Inpatient Medicaid Private
LifeWorks Project Network

3655 Northeast Garfield Avenue
Portland, OR 97212

503-335-0855 Detox Inpatient Medicaid Private
Cascadia Garlington Health Center

3036 Northeast Martin Luther King Jr Boulevard
Portland, OR 97212

503-674-7777 Inpatient Medicaid Private
Fora Health

1312 Southwest Washington Street
Portland, OR 97205

503-535-1150 Outpatient Detox Inpatient Medicaid Private
Belmont Comprehensive Treatment Center

2600 Southeast Belmont Street
Portland, OR 97214

503-673-9353 Outpatient Detox Medicaid Private
Monte Nido Eating Disorder Center of Portland

5550 South Macadam Avenue #100
Portland, OR 97239

541-275-6654 Outpatient Inpatient Private
Morrison Child and Family Services Portland

1507 Northeast 122nd
Portland, OR 97230

503-258-4555 Outpatient Medicaid
Alano Club

909 Northwest 24th Avenue
Portland, OR 97210

503-222-5756 Inpatient N/A
Cedar Hills Outpatient Campus

1815 Southwest Marlow Avenue
Portland, OR 97225

971-228-8000 Outpatient Private
Morrison Child and Family Services Sandy Boulevard

11035 Northeast Sandy Boulevard
Portland, OR 97220

503-258-4200 Outpatient Inpatient Medicaid Private
Downtown Portland Comprehensive Treatment Center

324 Northwest Davis Street
Portland, OR 97209

503-549-1062 Outpatient Detox Medicaid Private
LifeWorks Sylvan

5415 Southwest Westgate Drive
Portland, OR 97221

503-645-3581 Outpatient Medicaid Private
Columbia House ICM Team

1708 Southwest Columbia Street
Portland, OR 97201

503-597-3956 Outpatient Medicaid
Volunteers of America of Oregon Mens Residential

2318 Northeast Martin Luther King Junior Boulevard
Portland, OR 97212

503-335-8611 Outpatient Inpatient Private
Modus Vivendi

1000 Northeast 122nd Avenue
Portland, OR 97230

503-781-9065 Outpatient Medicaid Private Free
VA Portland Health Care System CRRC

308 Southwest 1st Avenue
Portland, OR 97204

503-808-1256 Outpatient Medicaid Private
NARA Residential Treatment Center

17645 Northwest Saint Helens Highway
Portland, OR 97231

503-621-1069 Inpatient Outpatient Medicaid Private
Recovery Blvd Treatment Center

1206 Southeast 11th Avenue
Portland, OR 97214

503-897-1916 Outpatient Detox Inpatient Private
Crestview Recovery

6025 Southeast Belmont Street
Portland, OR 97215

866-262-0531 Detox Outpatient Inpatient Private
Astrue and Associates

511 Southwest 10th Avenue
Portland, OR 97205

503-220-0520 Outpatient Detox Private
Teras Interventions and Counseling

3945 Southeast Hawthorne Boulevard
Portland, OR 97214

503-719-5250 Outpatient Medicaid Private
Hooper Detoxification Stabilization Center

1535 North Williams Avenue
Portland, OR 97227

503-238-2067 N/A N/A
Integrated Health Solutions

6230 Northeast Halsey Street
Portland, OR 97213

503-975-5844 Outpatient Detox Medicaid Private
Telecare 72nd Avenue Recovery Center

7759 Southeast 72nd Avenue
Portland, OR 97206

503-788-4500 Inpatient Medicaid
Outpatient Services at VOA Oregon

10564 Southeast Washington Street
Portland, OR 97216

503-228-9229 Outpatient Medicaid Private
Fora Health Youth Services and Family Center

4411 Northeast Emerson Street
Portland, OR 97218

503-535-1151 Outpatient Detox Inpatient Medicaid Private
Acadia Northwest Portland

9570 Southwest Barbur Boulevard
Portland, OR 97219

503-245-6262 Outpatient Medicaid Private
Goodwill Industries of the Columbia Willamette

1943 Southeast 6th Avenue
Portland, OR 97214

503-238-6100 Inpatient N/A
Postpartum Support International

6706 SW 54th Avenue
Portland, OR 97219

503-894-9453 Inpatient N/A
CODA Tigard Outpatient

11970 Southwest Greenburg Road
Tigard, OR 97223

503-624-8304 Outpatient Medicaid Private
Union Gospel Mission

3 Northwest 3rd Avenue
Portland, OR 97209

503-274-4483 Inpatient N/A
Sunrise Counseling

11126 Northeast Halsey Street
Portland, OR 97220

503-516-4808 Outpatient N/A
Quest Center for Integrative Health

2901 East Burnside Street
Portland, OR 97214

503-238-5203 Outpatient Detox Medicaid Private
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Portland Alcohol/Drug Use Statistics

Released in late 2021, statistics from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health show Oregon’s teens and adults are struggling with substance use disorder (SUD). Oregon has the second-worst overall addiction rate in the country, with more than 18% of teens and adults reporting a problem with drugs or alcohol.1

The rest of the statistics are equally sobering. Oregon is:1

Portland is the county seat of Multnomah County. In 2019, county officials stated that the rate of alcohol-related deaths was nearly twice as high as the national average, making it a bigger threat than opioids or methamphetamines.2 However, when it comes to drug-related deaths, meth is the biggest issue in Portland.3

The Cost of Alcohol or Drug Rehab in Portland

The cost of drug or alcohol rehab in Portland will vary based on the type of program you choose. For example, residential inpatient programs are often more expensive than outpatient treatment since you live at the facility full-time. If cost is a barrier to treatment, there are other ways to finance drug rehab in Portland, including scholarships and free rehab.

State-funded rehab is paid for entirely by the government. These programs are typically run out of the local public health office and provide free or low-cost treatment options for people without insurance or a steady income. A state-funded program offers many of the same treatment options as a private facility.

The Multnomah County Department of Behavioral Health works with treatment providers and community agencies to help individuals and families receive the treatment they need. Multnomah Other provides funding for SUD services with specific providers. To receive funding, you must meet the following criteria:4

Does Insurance Cover Rehab in Portland?

doctor stacking blocks representing medical topicsIf you are part of a group plan through your employer and your company has more than 50 employees, your insurance is required to cover rehab through the Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act.

Additionally, the Affordable Care Act considers addiction treatment to be an “essential health benefit” that must be covered by new plans that participate in the Health Insurance Marketplace. One thing to keep in mind, however, is not all drug and alcohol rehabs in Portland accept every insurance policy.

Private Insurance

Private insurance can be used toward the costs of drug or alcohol rehab in Portland. How much it will cover depends on your individual plan and the treatment program you choose. You may also be asked to choose from a list of in-network providers and to pick up some of the costs through a deductible or copayment.

Popular private insurance providers include Anthem, Blue Cross Blue Shield, UnitedHealthcare, and Humana.


Medicaid is federally covered insurance for people with low incomes. Nearly 12% of adults who participate in Medicaid have a substance use disorder.5 In Oregon, the Medicaid program is called the Oregon Health Plan (OHP). You can apply at any time. OHP covers substance use treatment, including residential and outpatient treatment, counseling, acupuncture, methadone treatment, and detox at a drug or alcohol rehab in Portland.


Medicare is federally provided health insurance for adults 65 and older or under the age of 65 with a disability. It covers treatment for SUDs under the following circumstances:

Does My Insurance Plan Cover Addiction Treatment?

Not every drug or alcohol rehab in Portland accepts certain private insurance providers, Medicaid, or Medicare.  You can call the number on the back of your insurance card during the days and hours listed to speak to your provider directly about the types of treatment your plan covers. If in need of further help, our treatment support specialists are available at 800-926-9037 (Info iconWho Answers?) 24 hours a day, seven days a week, and can help you verify your insurance coverage and find the right Portland rehab.

How to Finance Addiction Treatment in Portland

A free drug or alcohol rehab may not have any openings. Perhaps you don’t qualify for a state-funded rehab or don’t have insurance. This should not be considered a barrier to getting the treatment you need for your substance use disorder. Some drug and alcohol rehabs in Portland do offer alternative payment options, and there are other ways to secure funding for rehab.

Choose a Program that Offers Payment Plans: Many drug and alcohol rehabs in Portland offer financing options that include payment plans. This allows you to pay a certain amount each month toward your treatment. Once you are out of rehab and in a more stable situation, you can pay more or even pay the rest of your treatment costs in full. Our directory allows you to search for rehab facilities that offer payment plans.

Apply for a Rehab Scholarship: Rehab scholarships can sometimes be available from non-profit organizations, foundations, or individual rehab facilities. They can also be combined with private insurance or Medicare and Medicaid to help finance the cost of your treatment. These scholarships are awarded on a case-by-case basis and may have specific requirements. It’s best to contact the individual facility directly to see what scholarships they may have available.

Find a Sliding Scale Rehab Program: A sliding scale payment program at a drug rehab or alcohol rehab in Portland is one of the more commonly offered financial options. This allows you to pay what you can afford during your treatment time, and the amount can change from month to month, depending on your income. Our treatment support specialists can help you identify a facility that offers this payment option.

Popular Drug & Alcohol Rehab Centers in Portland

woman embracing the airPortland rehabs are designed to meet the specific needs of each patient. From population-specific facilities to those focused more on holistic healing, you’ll have no trouble finding a drug or alcohol rehab in Portland that will suit your recovery needs.

Tree House Recovery PDX

Tree House Recovery PDX is designed for men who are suffering from drug or alcohol addiction. It features residential living spaces, treatment facilities, and therapy centers, all located in the center of Portland. Tree House Recovery utilizes a variety of treatment approaches, including writing, fitness, and yoga therapy. The center accepts self-pay options and private insurance.

Serenity Lane

Serenity Lane offers inpatient and outpatient services to men and women aged 18 and older. Its residential treatment center provides support for co-occurring mental health disorders and medical detox. There is also a partial hospitalization program, several levels of outpatient treatment, and a family program. Serenity Lane accepts Medicaid and also offers sliding scale payment assistance.

CODA Treatment Recovery

Founded in 1969, CODA offers residential treatment, outpatient programs, and supported housing for men, women, and young adults. The center believes in a medical approach to treatment that includes medications to help with withdrawal along with individual and group therapy. CODA offers free treatment for those who qualify, along with financial aid and sliding scale payment options.

Fora Health

Fora Health offers the full spectrum of treatment options, which allows its patients to easily transition to different parts of their recovery journey. Services include dual diagnosis treatment, medications, family therapy, and peer mentor services. This LGBTQ+-friendly rehab accepts all genders and young adults. The center accepts most private insurance and Oregon Health Plan Coordinated Care Organizations.

Addiction Treatment Settings

There is no “one-size-fits-all” approach to treatment for substance use disorder. Addiction treatment settings at a alcohol or drug rehab in Portland can vary in intensity and approach depending on your type of SUD and the kind of treatment you are seeking.

Inpatient Rehab

man riding bike in portlandResidential or inpatient rehab is typically for people who have completed medical detox and would benefit from highly structured care. You live at the rehab facility, which includes 24-hour supervision or care. The length of the program can run as little as 30 days or for many months. Days typically include group activities, therapy, and medical care.

Partial Hospitalization Programs

A partial hospitalization program (PHP) is when the patient stays at the hospital for no more than 20 hours a week, often during the day. There are no overnight stays. A PHP includes a mix of outpatient individual and group counseling in a hospital setting. Nurses and doctors are available for medical care when needed. This setting can be used as a step-down from inpatient treatment. You can also choose a PHP program if you’ve had a relapse or require more intense services but can’t or don’t want to enter an inpatient facility.

Intensive Outpatient Programs

Intensive outpatient treatment (IOP) requires the patient to spend more time in the program than in a standard outpatient program; often, this means nine or more hours a week. You’ll receive an individual treatment plan based on your particular needs. Treatment includes individual counseling as well as group therapy. Patients often start an IOP after completing inpatient rehab or a PHP. Some IOPs may have sessions every evening during the week so you can continue to go to work, while others may require you to attend during the day, up to three days a week.

Standard Outpatient

Standard outpatient treatment often includes attending counseling for a couple of hours per week, split up over one or two sessions.. It can include group, individual, and family sessions. Outpatient treatment allows you to keep working, going to school, or taking care of your family while in treatment. Patients who have a safe place to live, a strong support system, and reliable transportation are good candidates for outpatient treatment.

Telehealth and Online Addiction Treatment

Some Portland drug and alcohol rehabs are using telehealth and online addiction treatment. Telehealth involves accessing care remotely through your phone or computer. This allows people who may not be able to access in-person treatment due to travel or childcare issues to still get the help they need. However, not all insurance plans cover telehealth treatment, so make sure to check with your provider.

A 2021 study found that telemedicine for addiction treatment was as effective as in-person treatment, especially when it comes to individual counseling.6

Medical Detox

Detox is often the first step in the addiction recovery process. Medically supervised detox help maintain comfort while all traces of the substance to leave the body. During medical detox, specific medications are given to help manage the uncomfortable or dangerous side effects of withdrawal symptoms. Medical detox is especially recommended if you have a prescription opioid, heroin, or alcohol addiction.

Medical detox only addresses the physical dependence on drugs or alcohol and does not address the underlying causes of a substance use disorder. Once detox is completed, the next step should be the appropriate addiction treatment program.

Specialized Rehab in Portland for Various Populations

There are Portland drug rehabs and alcohol rehabs that offer programs tailored to the unique needs of a specific population, such as teens or the LGBTQ+ community. Even a gender-specific rehab can provide support programs that are focused on the different ways substance use disorders present themselves in men compared to women.

Veteran Rehab

Substance use disorders are a growing problem among military veterans, particularly alcohol use disorder.7 Nearly 11% of veterans who came to the Veterans Administration healthcare system for the first time met the criteria for a substance use disorder.7
Prescription drug misuse, such as opioids, is also on the rise among veterans.7 Opioids are often prescribed to veterans to address issues such as migraines and chronic pain.7 Veterans diagnosed with post-traumatic stress disorder are also more likely to receive an opioid prescription.7
A Portland rehab designed for veterans will take a targeted approach to address their needs, particularly when it comes to co-occurring mental health disorders. They can also go through treatment surrounded by people who understand their experiences. This provides an atmosphere of safety where veterans can feel comfortable sharing their feelings.

LGBTQ+ Rehab

RThose who identify as LGBTQ+ are almost twice as likely to be diagnosed with a substance use disorder than those outside the community.8 An LGBTQ+ rehab provides a safe, compassionate, and understanding place where people can seek treatment.
This type of rehab employs staff that understands the stressors that accompany the LGBTQ+ population and receive special training to help them address these needs. Such stressors may include homophobia, discrimination, family rejection, and depression. More importantly, patients understand that they will be accepted without judgment or discrimination.

Men-Only Rehab

Studies show men are about twice as likely to have a substance use disorder than women.9 They are also more likely to have higher rates of alcohol use, including binge drinking.10
A male-only rehab gives patients a chance to connect with other men who have been through a similar experience, without any distractions. This can help build a sense of camaraderie, help men feel less isolated, and make it easier to open up about feelings and concerns.

Women-Only Rehab

A rehab in Portland that accepts only women will feature staff trained to deal with the special needs that are associated with women’s substance use disorders and recovery. Women are more likely to have a history of trauma and are also more likely to have a co-occurring mental disorder, such as anxiety or depression, than men.11
A women-only rehab provides a safe environment where a woman can begin healing from any past trauma and comfortably address the root of their addiction while being supported by other women. This includes gender-specific therapies and treatments that understand stressors women commonly face.

Young Adult Rehab

It’s not uncommon for teens to struggle with addiction. According to the 2020 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 6% of all adolescents between 12 and 17 had a substance use disorder.12 However, they have unique needs when it comes to treatment.
A Portland drug or alcohol rehab targeted at teens removes them from the pressures of daily life, including many of the triggers that may have led to their addiction. It also provides a structured, healthy environment where teens can learn how to develop better coping mechanisms. There will typically be peer support groups, family therapy, and time set aside so they can keep up with their schoolwork.

Teen Rehab

It’s not uncommon for teens to struggle with addiction. According to the 2020 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 6% of all adolescents between 12 and 17 had a substance use disorder.12 However, they have unique needs when it comes to treatment.

A Portland drug or alcohol rehab targeted at teens removes them from the pressures of daily life, including many of the triggers that may have led to their addiction. It also provides a structured, healthy environment where teens can learn how to develop better coping mechanisms. There will typically be peer support groups, family therapy, and time set aside so they can keep up with their schoolwork.

 Should I Travel to Portland for Drug and Alcohol Rehab?

Traveling for rehab can remove you from harmful influences or distractions that could derail your recovery efforts. As one of the largest metropolitan areas in Oregon, Portland can offer you a fresh start, as well as many options for drug or alcohol rehab.

Neighborhoods in Portland to Consider for Treatment

Portland features dozens of neighborhoods divided into Northwest, Northeast, Central, Southwest, Southeast, and East Portland. A few notable areas include:

Alcohol & Drug Laws in Oregon

Drug Decriminalization and Addiction Treatment Initiative: In 2021, Oregon became the first state to no longer make it a crime to possess small amounts of illegal drugs such as cocaine, heroin, methamphetamine, and oxycodone. Instead, the person is subject to a $100 fine. They can either pay the fine or have it waived by attending a health screening. Those caught with larger amounts of illegal drugs are still subject to arrest. The measure also expands funding and access to addiction treatment services.

Good Samaritan Law: Under the Good Samaritan Law, if someone is overdosing and you reach out for medical help, neither of you can be arrested or prosecuted for:

  • Drug possession
  • Being in the vicinity of drug use
  • Violating probation or parole due to drug use or possession
  • Outstanding warrants from drug use or possession

This law does not protect you from other crimes that may have been committed, such as weapons possession or outstanding federal warrants or warrants from another state.

Naloxone Access Law: In Oregon, anyone can get naloxone, or Narcan, from a pharmacist without a prescription. State law allows people to carry and use naloxone on anyone who may be experiencing an opioid overdose.

Aftercare Options for Post-Rehab Success

Once you’ve completed a rehab program, it’s important to create an aftercare plan for post-rehab success. This plan will include activities, meetings, and other resources to help you manage your day-to-day life and any triggers or cravings you may face when treatment is over. Each person’s aftercare plan will be based on their own needs.

Sober Living Homes

If you started treatment at a Portland drug or alcohol inpatient rehab, a sober residence could be the appropriate next step. These residential housing situations are good options for those who have an uncertain living situation or who lack a strong sober support network. A sober living home can include a therapeutic community, recovery housing designed for short-term needs, or a halfway house.

Support Groups

Support groups provide the continuous encouragement needed to help avoid relapse and stay sober. These groups are made up of people who have been where you are and understand your experiences. The options include:

Individual and Group Counseling

Individual and group counseling can be helpful for people who continue to face triggers and stressors that could threaten their recovery. Counseling is also beneficial if you are working through additional mental health issues.

Our treatment support specialists are available 24 hours a day, seven days a week, to assist you with finding a program. Just call our free and confidential helpline at 800-926-9037 (Info iconWho Answers?) .


  1. Mental Health & Addiction Association of Oregon. (2021). Oregon Data extracted from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health.
  2. Multnomah County. (2019, March 4). More residents die from alcohol than opioids, suggesting policy should refocus.
  3. Mental Health & Addiction Association of Oregon. (2019, February 15). Meth: The Leading Cause of Drug-Related Deaths in Oregon.
  4. Multnomah County (n.d.). Addiction Provider Resource.
  5. gov. (n.d.). Substance Use Disorders.
  6. Tami, M.L., Treiman, K., Padwa, H., Henretty, K., Tzeng, J., Gilbert, M. (2021, October 13). Addiction Treatment and Telehealth: Review of Efficacy and Provider Insights During the COVID-19 Pandemic. Psychiatry Online.
  7. Teeters, J. B., Lancaster, C. L., Brown, D. G., & Back, S. E. (2017). Substance use disorders in military veterans: prevalence and treatment challenges. Substance Abuse and Rehabilitation, 8, 69–77.
  8. National Alliance on Mental Illness. (n.d.). LGBTQI.
  9. Polak, K., Haug, N.A., Drachenberg, H.E., Svikis, D.S. (2015, July 7). Gender Considerations in Addiction: Implications for Treatment. Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry, 2, 326–338.
  10. National Institute on Drug Abuse. (2022, April 18). Sex and Gender Differences in Substance Use.
  11. Keyser-Marcus, L., Alvanzo, A., Rieckmann, T., Thacker, L., Sepulveda, A., Forcehimes, A., Islam, L. Z., Leisey, M., Stitzer, M., & Svikis, D. S. (2015). Trauma, gender, and mental health symptoms in individuals with substance use disorders. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 30(1), 3–24.
  12. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (2021). Key substance use and mental health indicators in the United States: Results from the 2020 National Survey on Drug Use and Health.